Some wikified history:
The Tuareg are a nomadic pastoralist people. They are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. They call themselves variously Kel Tamasheq or Kel Tamajaq ("Speakers of Tamasheq"), Imuhagh, Imazaghan or Imashaghen ("the Free people"), or Kel Tagelmust, i.e., "People of the Veil" [...] Long-standing competition for resources in the Sahel has caused Tuareg conflicts with neighboring African groups, especially after political disruption and economic constraints following French colonization and independence. [...] In the 1980s rebel fighters founded Tinariwen, a Tuareg band that fuses electric guitars and indigenous musical styles. Tinariwen is one of the best known and authentic Tuareg bands. Especially in areas that were cut off during the Tuareg rebellion (e.g., Adrar des Iforas), they were practically the only music available.
Group Bombino is also good. The guitars, drumming, chanting and clapping is hypnotic.